Statista: The Statista Portal Web Site U.S. New York: Statista, Inc. [Internet]. Number of social network users worldwide from 2017 to 2025 (in billions) [cited 2022 Apr 25]. https://www.statista.com/statistics/278414/number-of-worldwide-social-network-users/
Prensky M. Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the Horizon. 2001;9:1–6.
DeJong SM, Benjamin S, Anzia JM, John N, Boland RJ, Lomax J, et al. Professionalism and the internet in psychiatry: what to teach and how to teach it. Acad Psychiatry. 2012;36:356–62.
Hamm MP, Chisholm A, Shulhan J, Milne A, Scott SD, Klassen TP, et al. Social media use by health care professionals and trainees: a scoping review. Acad Med. 2013;88:1376–83.
Kaplan AM, Haenlein M. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Bus Horiz. 2010;53:59–68.
Guraya SS, Guraya SY, Yusoff MSB. Preserving professional identities, behaviors, and values in digital professionalism using social networking sites; a systematic review. BMC Med Educ. 2021;21:381.
Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Steinert Y. Amending Miller’s pyramid to include professional identity formation. Acad Med. 2016;91:180–5.
Cain J, Romanelli F. E-professionalism: a new paradigm for a digital age. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2009;1:66–70.
Guraya SS, Guraya SY, Harkin DW, Ryan Á, bin Mat Nor MZ, Yusoff MSB. Medical Education e-Professionalism (MEeP) framework; from conception to development. Med Educ Online. 2021;26:1983926.
Gorrindo T, Gorrindo PC, Groves JE. Intersection of online social networking with medical professionalism: can medicine police the facebook boom? J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23:2155–2155.
George DR, Green MJ. Beyond good and evil: exploring medical trainee use of social media. Teach Learn Med. 2012;24:155–7.
White J, Kirwan P, Lai K, Walton J, Ross S. ‘Have you seen what is on Facebook?’ The use of social networking software by healthcare professions students. BMJ Open. 2013;3: e003013.
Viskić J, Jokić D, Marelić M, Machala Poplašen L, Relić D, Sedak K, et al. Social media use habits, and attitudes toward e-professionalism among medicine and dental medicine students: a quantitative cross-sectional study. Croat Med J. 2021;62:569–79.
Soubra R, Hasan I, Ftouni L, Saab A, Shaarani I. Future healthcare providers and professionalism on social media: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med Ethics. 2022;23:4.
Vukušić Rukavina T, Viskić J, Machala Poplašen L, Relić D, Marelić M, Jokic D, et al. Dangers and benefits of social media on e-professionalism of health care professionals: scoping review. J Med Internet Res. 2021;23: e25770.
Neville P, Waylen A. Social media and dentistry: some reflections on e-professionalism. Br Dent J. 2015;218:475–8.
Blatz MB, Chiche G, Bahat O, Roblee R, Coachman C, Heymann HO. Evolution of aesthetic dentistry. J Dent Res. 2019;98:1294–304.
Ansari S, Abdullah Alzahrani A, Said Abomelha A, Attia Elhalwagy A, Mustafa Alalawi T, Mahmoud ST. Influence of social media towards the selection of Hollywood smile among the university students in Riyadh City. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020;9:3037–41.
Afroz S, Rathi S, Rajput G, Rahman SA. Dental esthetics and its impact on psycho-social well-being and dental self confidence: a campus based survey of north Indian university students. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2013;13:455–60.
Chen J, Ishii M, Bater KL, Darrach H, Liao D, Huynh PP, et al. Association between the use of social media and photograph editing applications, self-esteem, and cosmetic surgery acceptance. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2019;21:361–7.
Sarah. Social Media Speaker: 10 Ways Dental Practices can use Social Media. [Internet] Boot Camp Digital. [cited 2022 Apr 25]. https://bootcampdigital.com/blog/social-media-speaker-10-ways-dental-practices-can-use-social-media/.
Henry RK, Molnar A, Henry JC. A survey of US dental practices’ use of social media. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13:137–41.
Croatian Institute for Public Health. Croatian health statistics yearbook 2019. [cited 2022 Sep 05]. https://www.hzjz.hr/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Ljetopis_Yerabook_2019.pdf.
Esterburg JC. Are dentists losing their status as ‘professionals’? J Am Dent Assoc. 2011;142:1084–5.
Quock RL, Al-Sabbagh M, Mason MK, Sfeir CS, Bennett JD. The dentist as doctor: a rallying call for the future. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014;118:637–41.
Stiles BM, Mynard JN. Social media and your cancer patient. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021;33:517–21.
Househ M, Borycki E, Kushniruk A. Empowering patients through social media: the benefits and challenges. Health Inform J. 2014;20:50–8.
Cork N, Grant P. Blurred lines: the General Medical Council guidance on doctors and social media. Clin Med (Lond). 2016;16:219–22.
Greysen SR, Chretien KC, Kind T, Young A, Gross CP. Physician violations of online professionalism and disciplinary actions: a national survey of state medical boards. JAMA. 2012;307:1141–2.
Staud SN, Kearney RC. Social media use behaviors and state dental licensing boards. J Dent Hyg. 2019;93:37–43.
Kumar H, Raj P. An indagation on experiences and awareness of digital footprint among pupils of higher education. Acad Res Int. 2020;11:16–31.
Mosalanejad L, Tafvisi M, Zarifsanaiey N. E-professionalism in medical sciences: a hybrid concept analysis. J Edu Health Promot. 2021;10:52.
Garner J, O’Sullivan H. Facebook and the professional behaviours of undergraduate medical students. Clin Teach. 2010;7(2):112–5.
Gettig JP, Lee N, Fjortoft N. Student and faculty observations and perceptions of professionalism in online domain scenarios. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(9):192.
Koo K, Bowman MS, Ficko Z, Gormley EA. Older and wiser? Changes in unprofessional content on urologists’ social media after transition from residency to practice. BJU Int. 2018;122:337–43.
Koo K, Ficko Z, Gormley EA. Unprofessional content on Facebook accounts of US urology residency graduates. BJU Int. 2017;119:955–60.
Langenfeld SJ, Sudbeck C, Luers T, Adamson P, Cook G, Schenarts PJ. The glass houses of attending surgeons: an assessment of unprofessional behavior on facebook among practicing surgeons. J Surg Educ. 2015;72:e280–5.
Hardouin S, Cheng TW, Mitchell EL, Raulli SJ, Jones DW, Siracuse JJ, et al. RETRACTED: prevalence of unprofessional social media content among young vascular surgeons. J Vasc Surg. 2020;72:667–71.
Mock J. #MedBikini: Doctors Call Out Study for Sexism and Discrimination. [Internet]. Medscape. [cited 2022 Jun 24]. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/934587.
Vukušić Rukavina T, Machala Poplašen L, Majer M, Relić D, Viskić J, Marelić M. Defining potentially unprofessional behavior on social media for health care professionals: mixed methods study. JMIR Med Educ. 2022;8(3): e35585.
University of Zagreb, School of Medicine: Dangers and benefits of social networks: E-Professionalism of healthcare professionals—SMePROF. [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 25]. https://mef.unizg.hr/znanost/istrazivanje/web-stranice-projekata/projekt-hrzz-smeprof/.
Croatian Medical Chamber. [Internet]. [cited 2022 Sep 05]. https://www.hlk.hr/
Croatian Chamber of Dental Medicine. [Internet]. [cited 2022 Sep 05]. https://www.hkdm.hr/en/
Marelić M, Viskić J, Poplašen LM, Relić D, Jokić D, Rukavina TV. Development and validation of scale for measuring attitudes towards e-professionalism among medical and dental students: SMePROF-S scale. BMC Med Educ. 2021;21:445.
Knapp TR, Campbell-Heider N. Numbers of observations and variables in multivariate analyses. West J Nurs Res. 1989;11:634–41.
Sheskin D. Handbook of parametric and nonparametric statistical procedures. 5th ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2011.
Brisson GE, Fisher MJ, LaBelle MW, Kozmic SE. Defining a mismatch: differences in usage of social networking sites between medical students and the faculty who teach them. Teach Learn Med. 2015;27(2):208–14.
Surani Z, Hirani R, Elias A, Quisenberry L, Varon J, Surani S, et al. Social media usage among health care providers. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10(1):654.
Shearer E, Mitchell E. News use across social media platforms in 2020: Facebook stands out as a regular source of news for about a third of Americans. [Internet]. Pew Research Center. 12 Jan 2021. [cited 2022 Apr 25]. https://www.pewresearch.org/journalism/2021/01/12/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-in-2020/
Datareportal. Digital 2022: Croatia. [Internet]. [cited 2022 Sep 05]. https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2022-croatia
Demonja D, Uglješic N. Dental tourism and business risks: the example of the Republic of Croatia. Interdiscip Descr Complex Syst. 2020;18:425–45.
Croatian Medical Chamber. [First time published data about the departure of Croatian doctors for work abroad] [Croatian] (2016). [cited 2022 Sep 05]. https://www.hlk.hr/EasyEdit/UserFiles/priop%C4%87enja/odlazak-lijecnika-na-rad-u-inozemstvo.pdf.
Croatian Medical Chamber. Digital atlas of Croatian medical doctors. [Interent] (2020). [cited 2022 Sep 05]. https://atlas.hlk.hr/atlas/.
Douglas NKM, Scholz M, Myers MA, Rae SM, Elmansouri A, Hall S, et al. Reviewing the role of instagram in education: can a photo sharing application deliver benefits to medical and dental anatomy education? Med Sci Educ. 2019;29:1117–28.
Annear S. #MedBikini: Here’s why health care professionals are posting photos of themselves in bathing suits - The Boston Globe. [Interenet]. [cited 2022 Sep 05]. https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/07/24/metro/medbikini-heres-why-healthcare-professionals-are-posting-photos-themselves-bathing-suits-social-media/.
Drudi LM, Woo K, Ziegler KR, O’Banion L-A. Professionalism in (vascular) surgery: What does it mean? J Vasc Surg. 2021;74:93S-100S.
Panahi S, Watson J, Partridge H. Fostering interpersonal trust on social media: physicians’ perspectives and experiences. Postgrad Med J. 2016;92:70–3.
Chisholm-Burns MA, Spivey CA, Jaeger MC, Williams J, George C. Development of an instrument to measure pharmacy student attitudes toward social media professionalism. Am J Pharm Educ. 2017;81:65.
Nieminen P, Uma E, Mani SA, John J, Laitala M-L, Lappalainen O-P. E-professionalism among dental students from Malaysia and Finland. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19:3234.
Walton JM, White J, Ross S. What’s on YOUR Facebook profile? Evaluation of an educational intervention to promote appropriate use of privacy settings by medical students on social networking sites. Med Educ Online. 2015;20:28708.
Funkhouser E, Vellala K, Baltuck C, Cacciato R, Durand E, McEdward D, Sowell E, Theisen SE, Gilbert GH, National Dental PBRN Collaborative Group. Survey methods to optimize response rate in the national dental practice-based research network. Eval Health Prof. 2017;40(3):332–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278715625738.
Delnevo CD, Singh B. The effect of a web-push survey on physician survey responses rates: a randomized experiment. Surv Pract. 2021;14(1):10.29115/sp-2021.0001. https://doi.org/10.29115/sp-2021-0001.
Flanigan TS, McFarlane E, Cook S. Conducting survey research among physicians and other medical professionals: a review of current literature. In: Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section, American Statistical Association, 2008 [Internet]. p. 4136–47. [cited 2022 Aug 21]. http://www.asasrms.org/Proceedings/y2008/Files/flanigan.pdf
Weaver L, Beebe TJ, Rockwood T. The impact of survey mode on the response rate in a survey of the factors that influence Minnesota physicians’ disclosure practices. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2019;19:73.
Cull WL, O’Connor KG, Sharp S, Tang SS. Response rates and response bias for 50 surveys of pediatricians. Health Serv Res. 2005;40(1):213–26.
Cook JV, Dickinson HO, Eccles MP. Response rates in postal surveys of healthcare professionals between 1996 and 2005: an observational study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9:160.
Cho YI, Johnson TP, Vangeest JB. Enhancing surveys of health care professionals: a meta-analysis of techniques to improve response. Eval Health Prof. 2013;36(3):382–407.
McLeod CC, Klabunde CN, Willis GB, Stark D. Health care provider surveys in the United States, 2000–2010: a review. Eval Health Prof. 2013;36(1):106–26.
Daikeler J, Bošnjak M, Lozar MK. Web versus other survey modes: an updated and extended meta-analysis comparing response rates. J Surv Stat Methodol. 2020;8(3):513–39.
Fricker RD. Sampling methods for web and e-mail surveys. In: Hughes J, editor. SAGE Internet Research Methods. London: SAGE Publications; 2012. p. 195–216.
[Law on medical profession]. Official Gazette no. 121/2003, 117/2008. [Croatian]. [cited 2022 Nov 25]. https://www.zakon.hr/z/405/Zakon-o-lije%C4%8Dni%C5%A1tvu
Regulation on public register of the Croatian Medical Chamber from 2019 Dec 14 [Croatian] (2019). [cited 2022 Nov 25]. https://www.hlk.hr/EasyEdit/UserFiles/Pravilnici/2019-2020/3-pravilnik-o-javnim-knjigama-hlk-14122019.pdf
Kellerman SE, Herold J. Physicians response to surveys. A review of the literature. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(1):61–7.