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Table 2 Frequency of different sanctions in the analysis of cases

From: A scoping review of the literature featuring research ethics and research integrity cases

Sanction Number of cases Percentage (%) Percentage of cases (n = 141) (%)
Paper retraction 64 33.3 45.4
Excluded from fund applications 50 26.0 35.5
Barred from service 22 11.5 15.6
Fired or suspended 18 9.4 12.8
Paper correction 12 6.3 8.5
Resignation 7 3.6 5.0
Trial 6 3.1 4.3
Manuscript rejection 5 2.6 3.5
Prison 3 1.6 2.1
Study halted 3 1.6 2.1
Fines / Restitution 2 1.0 1.4