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Table 2 Reporting of informed consent and ethical approval in clinical research in leading nursing journals between 2015 and 2017

From: Reporting of ethical approval and informed consent in clinical research published in leading nursing journals: a retrospective observational study

ItemsNumber of clinical researchesNumber of Prospective studiesN (%)
Informed consent reportedEthical approval reported
Year
 2015398364 (91.5)328 (90.1)376 (94.5)
 2016510477 (93.5)411 (86.2)477 (93.5)
 2017376344 (91.5)298 (86.6)350 (93.1)
X2  0.4620.045
P value  0.7940.978
Study type
 Prospective studies11851037 (87.5)1121 (94.6)
 Randomized controlled trial122113 (92.6)119 (97.5)
 Nonrandomized trial6252 (83.9)61 (98.4)
 Observational study835734 (87.9)792 (94.9)
 Single-arm6652 (78.8)55 (83.3)
 Specimen000
 Mixed methods study10086 (86.0)94 (94.0)
 Retrospective studies9982 (82.8)
 Specimen00
 Chart review2120 (95.2)
 Database analysis7862 (79.5)
P value  < 0.001
Mentioning financial support
 Yes702662 (94.3)587 (88.7)668 (95.2)
 No582523 (89.9)450 (86.0)535 (91.9)
P value  0.1850.021
The country of conducting the research
 US186155 (83.3)127 (81.9)175 (94.1)
 Australia148137 (92.6)118 (86.1)147 (99.3)
 UK144136 (94.4)111 (81.6)138 (95.8)
 China124119 (96.0)107 (90.0)118 (95.2)
 Sweden6963 (91.3)59 (93.7)66 (95.7)
  ≥ 2 countries6359 (93.7)48 (81.4)52 (82.5)
 Canada6055 (91.7)51 (92.7)58 (96.7)
 Netherlands4744 (93.6)39 (88.6)42 (89.4)
 Spain4340 (93.0)35 (87.5)31 (72.1)
 Korea4341 (95.3)39 (95.1)43 (100)
 Turkey3333 (100)33 (100)28 (84.9)
 Norway2523 (92.0)22 (95.7)24 (96.0)
 Italy2523 (92.0)21 (91.3)23 (92.0)
 Japan1916 (84.2)15 (93.8)19 (100)
 Finland1716 (94.1)14 (87.5)15 (88.2)
 Ireland1716 (94.1)12 (75.0)13 (76.5)
 Singapore1717 (100)16 (94.1)16 (94.1)
 Israel1612 (75.0)9 (75.0)16 (100)
 Germany1514 (93.3)11 (78.6)13 (86.7)
 Denmark1414 (100)14 (100)13 (92.9)
 Belgium1313 (100)12 (92.3)13 (100)
 Iran1313 (100)12 (92.3)13 (100)
 Jordan1111 (100)10 (90.1)10 (90.1)
 Brazil1110 (90.1)9 (90.0)11 (100)
 France97 (77.8)5 (71.4)8 (88.9)
 New Zealand86 (75.0)4 (66.7)8 (100)
 Switzerland88 (100)8 (100)7 (87.5)
 Thailand77 (100)6 (85.7)7 (100)
 South Africa66 (100)6 (100)6 (100)
 Greece55 (100)4 (80.0)5 (100)
 Poland55 (100)5 (100)5 (100)
 Portugal55 (100)5 (100)5 (100)
 Iceland43 (75.0)3 (100)3 (75.0)
 India44 (100)3 (75.0)4 (100)
 Indonesia44 (100)3 (75.0)4 (100)
 Malaysia44 (100)4 (100)4 (100)
 Lebanon44 (100)4 (100)4 (100)
 Philippines44 (100)4 (100)4 (100)
 Saudi Arabia44 (100)2 (50.0)3 (75.0)
 Croatia33 (100)2 (66.7)3 (100)
 Afghanistan22 (100)2 (100)2 (100)
 Africa22 (100)2 (100)2 (100)
 Chile21 (50.0)1 (100)2 (100)
 Mexico22 (100)2 (100)2 (100)
 Nepal22 (100)2 (100)2 (100)
 Oman22 (100)2 (100)2 (100)
 Brunei11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Dutch11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Egypt11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Ethiopia11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Florida11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Lithuania11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Madagascar11 (100)1 (100)0
 Malawi11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Nigeria11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Pakistan11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Palestine11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Qatar11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Serbia11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
 Slovenia11 (100)01 (100)
 Srilanka11 (100)1 (100)1 (100)
P value  < 0.001< 0.001