Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study sample and population

From: The use of empirical research in bioethics: a survey of researchers in twelve European countries

  Study sample (N = 200) Study population (N = 469)b
  n % n %
 Man 83 40.5 198 45.0
 Woman 117 58.5 242 55.0
Age category a
  ≤ 34 years 69 34.8
 35–44 years 78 39.4
  ≥ 45 years 51 25.8
 Master’s degree 39 19.5
 PhD or equivalent 148 74.0
 Other 13 6.5
 Professor 57 28.5
 Post-doc or senior researcher 81 40.5
 PhD-students 62 31.0
  1. aData missing for two cases for ‘age category’ in the study sample
  2. bData for the population (all bioethics scholars who received our survey) contained missing values up to 70% (e.g. age) because this data was either not available on the public domain (institution websites) or provided using labels that did not allow categorisation (such as for data on background or degrees). Moreover, the data on education and position were mutually contradictory indicating that information online was not updated. We therefore could only use the data on gender (data missing for 29 cases for the study population) to compare the response group with the non-response group
  3. Chi2 test was run to compare the study sample with the nonresponse (study population minus the study sample) for gender. No significant difference was found