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Table 2 Main characteristics of studies

From: Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review

  Studies (N = 42)
Method
 Assumption method 25 [25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41, 43, 58, 59, 61, 63,64,65,66]
 Implicit measure 17 [20,21,22,23,24, 42, 44,45,46,47,48,49,50, 60, 62, 67, 68]
 Implicit measure - IAT 15 [22,23,24, 42, 44,45,46,47,48,49,50, 60, 62, 67, 68]
  (of which: IAT combined with behaviour or decision) 9 [23, 24, 42, 44,45,46,47,48, 67]
 Implicit measure - Subliminal priming 2 [20, 21]
Setting and type of test
 IAT – implicit prejudice 15 [22,23,24, 42, 44,45,46,47,48,49,50, 60, 62, 67, 68]
 IAT – implicit stereotype 5 [23, 45,46,47, 50]
 IAT – standard 13 [22,23,24, 42, 44,45,46,47, 50, 60, 62, 67, 68]
 IAT – Single Category 2 [48, 49]
 IAT – uncontrolled setting 10 [22, 23, 42, 45,46,47, 50, 60, 62, 67]
 IAT - controlled laboratory setting 3 [48, 49, 68]
 IAT – setting unspecified 2 [24, 44]
 Assumption method – video vignette with oral questions 10 [27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36]
 Assumption method – written texts 11 [25, 26, 40, 43, 58, 59, 61, 63,64,65,66]
  (of which: photos in addition) 1 [43]
 Assumption method – video vignette with written questions 3 [37,38,39]
 Assumption method – simulations of encounters with patients and role-play 1 [41]
 Assumption method – controlled setting 16 [27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39, 41, 58, 63]
 Assumption method – uncontrolled setting 8 [25, 26, 40, 43, 61, 64,65,66]
 Assumption method – setting unspecified 1 [59]
Bias(es) studied
 Racial/ethnic 27 [20,21,22,23,24, 27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41, 43,44,45,46,47, 67]
 Multiple 14 [27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39, 66]
 Gender 14 [27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38, 63, 66]
 Socio-economic status (SES) 11 [27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36, 39]
 Age 11 [25, 27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36]
 Mental illness 4 [26, 42, 64, 65]
 Weight 3 [50, 60, 68]
 Brain-injured patients perceived to have contributed to their injury 2 [58, 59]
 Intravenous drug users 2 [48, 49]
 Disability 1 [62]
 AIDS patients 1 [61]
 Social circumstances (desiring an active lifestyle, having a demanding career, having family demands) 1 [66]
Country of study
 US 27 [20,21,22,23,24, 27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41, 43,44,45,46,47, 62, 66]
 UK 8 [26,27,28,29, 31, 32, 58, 59]
 Compared countries (US, UK and Germany) 4 [27,28,29, 31]
 Worldwide 3 [42, 60, 67]
 France 2 [25, 65]
 Australia 2 [48, 49]
 Germany 2 [29, 31]
 Canada 2 [50, 68]
 Israel 1 [63]
 Hong Kong 1 [64]
 China 1 [61]
  Participants (N = 15148)
Profession of participants
 Physicians 12156
 Nurses 740
 Either physicians or nurses 1404
 ‘Clinicians’, or ‘mental health professionals’ (at least some of whom were nurses and physicians) 834
 Psychologists 12
 Medical Students 2