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Table 1 Ethical goals of community engagement (listed chronologically by publication date)

From: Evaluating community engagement in global health research: the need for metrics

Weijer and Emanuel, 2000 [20]
 Protect communities in research
Emanuel et al., 2004 [9]
 Minimize the possibility of exploitation
 Increase the likelihood that the research will have a long-term impact
 Demonstrate an awareness of and respect for cultural differences between the researchers, sponsors and communities
 Respect for recruited participants and study populations
Dickert and Sugarman, 2005 [21]
 Enhance protections for communities
 Enhance benefits for communities
 Enhance legitimacy for the research
 Partners share responsibility for the conduct of the research
Nuffield Council of Bioethics, 2005 [53]
 Enhance respect for communities
 Tailor research to better meet the needs of communities
Tindana et al., 2007 [6]
 Ensure the relevance of research
 Assess whether relevant research is culturally and practically acceptable in the context it is intended
 Ensure that community disruption is minimized, i.e., avoiding the displacement of local medical staff from pressing local needs
 Avoid exploitation, by ensuring a fair distribution of the benefits of research
 Take into account the ethical hazards that may be part of the social, economic, and political landscape of the community
Ahmed and Palermo, 2010 (COPR) [1]
 Communities and investigators share power and responsibility equitably
 Diverse perspectives and populations are included in an equitable manner
 The research project results in mutual benefit for all partners
 All partners receive equal respect
UNAIDS and AVAC, 2011 [14]
 Ensure the ethical and scientific quality and outcome of proposed research
 Ensure relevance of research to the affected community
 Ensure acceptance of research by the affected community
Participants in the Community Engagement Consent Workshop, Kilifi Kenya [11]
 Support research that is respectful to individuals and communities where social value is maximized
Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens, 2012 [15]
 Ensure that disparities and inequalities are not inadvertently replicated or reinforced
 Ensure that power dynamics do not disadvantage some stakeholders more than others (minimize the threat of exploitation)
 Ensure that the burden associated with TB drug trials is fully apprehended and protocols are adjusted to minimize the burden
 Prioritize the management of stigma and involuntary isolation
 Ensure emerging challenges are addressed in the new era of TB drug trials
King, et al., 2014 [24]
 Identifying and managing non-obvious risks and benefits
 Expanding respect beyond the individual to the stakeholder community
 Building legitimacy for the research project