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Table 6 Subgroup interactions for meta-analysis of interventions

From: Improving understanding in the research informed consent process: a systematic review of 54 interventions tested in randomized control trials

Multimedia vs. control
  # of studies SMD LL UL p-value
Control      
Nonstandard 3 0.23 −0.41 0.88 0.8
Standard 4 0.37 −0.45 1.19  
Overall 7 0.29 −0.22 0.8  
Proctor present for control?
No 1 0.57 0.17 0.97 0.65
Yes 5 0.37 -0.44 1.17  
Proctor present for intervention?
No 2 0.51 0.14 0.88 0.85
Yes 4 0.41 -0.52 1.34  
Subjects      
Patients 4 0.69 0.14 1.25 0.33
Volunteers 1 0.16 -0.76 1.09  
Setting      
Real 4 0.12 -0.65 0.89 0.25
Simulated 3 0.64 0.22 1.06  
Enhanced consent form vs. control
  # of studies SMD LL UL p-value
Control      
Nonstandard 3 2.33 0.01 4.66 0.49
Standard 8 1.47 0.7 2.23  
Proctor present in both groups?
No 7 2.6 1.33 3.88 0.01
Yes 2 0.33 -0.43 1.09  
Subjects      
Patients 4 2.56 0.69 4.44 0.59
Volunteers 5 1.94 0.66 3.23  
Setting      
Real 3 0.57 -0.06 1.19 0.01
Simulated 8 2.23 1.19 3.28  
Extended discussion vs. control
  # of studies SMD LL UL p-value
Proctor present in control group?
No 3 1.31 0.33 2.29 0.19
Yes 1 0.63 0.33 0.93  
Subjects      
Patients 2 1.33 -0.07 2.74 0.53
Volunteers 2 0.83 0.19 1.47  
Setting      
Real 1 2.06 1.61 2.52 0.01
Simulated 3 0.66 0.39 0.93  
  1. Abbreviations: SMD Standard mean deviation, LL Lower limit, UL Upper limit.