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Table 6 Who to disclose Medical Error According to Public Preference and Perception of Current Practice per Demographic Characteristics

From: Which medical error to disclose to patients and by whom? Public preference and perceptions of norm and current practice

  Statement* Overall Pa At-fault-physician vs. other choicesb
  Any employee Any physician At-fault physician Manager of At-fault-physician Medical director Chief executive director   P OR (95% CI)
Personal Preference          
Males [399] 7 (2) 65 (16) 191 (48) 77 (19) 36 (9) 23 (6) 0.04 < 0.001 0.40
Females** [468] 9 (2) 40 (9) 327 (70) 56 (12) 18 (4) 18 (4)    (0.30-0.52)
Saudis [778] 14 (2) 92 (12) 468 (60) 117(15) 53 (7) 34 (4) 0.74 0.50 1.18
Non-Saudi Arabs** [89] 2 (2) 13 (15) 50 (56) 16 (18) 1 (1) 7 (8)    (0.76-1.83)
Patients [327] 8 (2) 44 (14) 202 (62) 48 (15) 16 (5) 9 (3) 0.02 0.34 1.15
Healthy** [540] 8 (2) 61 (11) 316 (59) 85 (16) 38 (7) 32 (6)    (0.87-1.52)
≥College [534] 11 (2) 68 (13) 310 (58) 95 (18) 32 (6) 18 (3) 0.10 0.13 0.61
          (0.32-1.16)
School [286] 3 (1) 31 (11) 176 (62) 34 (12) 21 (7) 21 (7)   0.30 0.70
          (0.36-1.37)
Illiterate** [46] 2 (4) 6 (13) 32 (70) 4 (9) 1 (2) 1 (2)    
Perception of Current Practice         
Males [405) 54 (13) 118 (29) 104 (26) 76 (19) 27 (7) 26 (6) 0.50 < 0.001 0.45
Females** [353] 20 (6) 120 (34) 154 (43) 23 (7) 16 (5) 20 (6)    (0.33-0.61)
Saudis [674] 66 (10) 215 (32) 229 (34) 87 (13) 40 (6) 37 (6) 0.32 0.92 0.98
Non-Saudi Arabs** [84] 8 (10) 23 (27) 29 (35) 12 (14) 3 (4) 9 (11)    (0.61-1.57)
Patients [270] 14 (5) 91 (34) 102 (38) 38 (14) 15 (6) 10 (4) 0.48 0.11 1.29
Healthy** [488] 60 (12) 147 (30) 156 (32) 61 (13) 28 (6) 36 (7)    (0.95-1.76)
≥College [478] 58 (12) 158 (33) 154 (32) 61 (13) 25 (5) 22 (5) 0.002 0.42 0.60
          (0.27-1.36)
School [254] 15 (6) 70 (28) 93 (37) 36 (14) 17 (7) 23 (9)   0.47 0.74
          (0.32-1.69)
Illiterate** [25] 1 (4) 10 (40) 11 (44) 1 (4) 1 (4) 1 (4)    
  1. *"Any employee", "any physician", "at-fault-physician", "manager of at-fault-physician", "medical director", and "chief executive director" correspond, respectively, to statements 1 to 6 in Table 1(b). Data indicate the number (%) of respondents who chose the corresponding statement. Numbers between [·] represent the number of responses from participants with the indicated characteristic. aMann-Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis test (for educational status). bMantel-Haenszel common odds ratio estimate.
  2. ** Reference group in the Mantel-Haenszel estimate. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
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