Skip to main content

Table 2 Ethical values and principles extracted from included studies

From: Ethical values and principles to guide the fair allocation of resources in response to a pandemic: a rapid systematic review

1 Equity [43] Fairness [14] 49 British Medical Association, 2020 [90]
   Equality [4]   Chisholm, 2020 [91]
   Antidiscrimination, Non-discriminatory [3]   
   Fair distribution [1]   
   Legitimacy [1]   
   Justice as fairness [1]   
2 Reciprocity [24] Mutual exchange [1] 24 Berlinger, 2020 [92]
   Society and employers should support and protect   British Medical Association, 2020 [90]
   those who take on increased burden and risk [4]   
   Support for those enduring a disproportionate burden during crisis and address/minimise burden [1]   
   Obligations to healthcare workers [1]   
   Justice-orientated reciprocity [1]   
3 Transparency [19] Openness and public accessibility [2] 21 British Medical Association, 2020 [90]
   Communication [2]   Scottish Government, 2020 [93]
   Publicly defensible [1]   
   Justification [1]   
   Veracity [1]   
4 (Social) (Distributive) Justice [17] Justice as fairness [1] 18 White, 2020 [94]
     Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019 [95]
5 Duty to (provide) care [14] Professional obligation of non-abandonment [1] 18 Department of Health Ireland, 2020 [96]
   Professional duty to respond [1]   Gostin, 2020 [97]
   Professional responsibility 1]   
   Duty to treat [1]   
   The obligation of healthcare workers to serve under stressful and risky conditions [1]   
   Professional integrity [1]   
6 Individual Liberty [10] Liberty [4] 18 Gostin, 2020 [97]
   Least restrictive [3]   White 2020 [94]
   Autonomy [2]   
   Constraints on / restrictions of liberty [3]   
   Individual autonomy [1]   
   Equal liberty and human rights [1]   
   Patient autonomy [1]   
   Patient liberty [1]   
   Choice, Free-will, Self-determination [1]   
7 Utility [9] Efficiency [1] 10 Emanuel, 2020 [53]
   Effectiveness [1]   Ram-Tiktin [31], 2017
   Greatest good for the greatest number [1]   
   Utilitarian value [1]   
8 Stewardship [11] Governance [1] 13 Ryus, 2018 [12]
   Duty to steward resources [1]   Ra-Tiktin, 2017 [31]
9 Trust [9] Informed and trusted communication [1] 12 Gostin, 2020 [97]
   Fidelity [1]   Eyal, 2012 [98]
   Honouring Patients’ Trust [1]   
10 Proportionality [9] Fair procedures [1] 10 Alberta Government, 2016 [99]
     Mariaselvam, 2016 [100]
11 Accountability [8]   8 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019 [95]
     Ryus, 2018 [101]
12 Privacy [5]   5 Department of Health, Ireland, 2020 [96]
     Barnett, 2009 [102]
13 Beneficence [4] Avoid harm, harm reduction, minimising harm [4] 9 Gostin, 2020 [97]
   Nonmaleficence [1]   British Medical Association, 2020 [90]
14 Protection of the Public from Harm [4] Good preparedness [1] 6 Gostin, 2020 [97]
   Protection of individuals at highest risk, meeting societal needs, and promoting social justice [1]   Mariaselvam, 2016 [100]
   Ensuring that benefits of relief and rescue activities reach the affected [1]   
15 Autonomy [4]   4 Kukora 2016 [103]
     Kirby, 2010 [104]
16 Solidarity [3] Mutual responsibility [1] 4 Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, 2020 [105]
     Silva, 2012 [67]
17 Working together [3]   3 British Medical Association, 2020 [90]
     Scottish Government, 2020 [93]
18 Community participation [2] Community resilience and empowerment [1] 4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019 [95]
   Obligations to community [1]   Mariaselvam, 2016 [100]
19 Responsiveness [2] Responsiveness to local values [1] 3 Mariaselvam, 2016 [100]
     Trotter, 2010 [106]
20 Consistency [2]   2 Ryus, 2018 [101]
     Hick, 2012 [107]
21 Duty to Plan [1] Flexibility and adaptability [1] 2 British Medical Association, 2020 [90]
     Ryus, 2018 [101]
22 Evidence [1]   1 Barnett, 2009 [102]
23 Others: related to Social-Community Respect [2]   (*)
   Social cohesiveness and collaboration [1]   
   Responsive civic response [1]   
   Dignity [1]   
   Compassion [1]   
24 Others: related to decision-making processes Reasonableness [1]   (*)
   Inclusiveness [1]   
   Sustainability (sustainable action and sustainable outcomes) [1]   
   Relevance [1]   
  1. (*) The most recent references presented in the table. For full reference list of each entry see Additional File 4