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Table 3 Differences of moral sensitivity and ethical decision-making by general characteristics of the participants

From: Nurses’ ethical decision-making during end of life care in South Korea: a cross-sectional descriptive survey

Variables Categories (n) Moral sensitivity Ethical decision-making Sub-dimensions of ethical decision-making
Professional accountability Moral reasoning/moral agency Moral practice
Mean ± SD p Mean ± SD p Mean ± SD p Mean ± SD p Mean ± SD p
Age (year)  ≤ 29 (79)a
30–39 (52)b
 ≥ 40(40)c
123.8 ± 13.5
125.8 ± 12.6
128.1 ± 14.5
0.246 249.3 ± 28.5
251.4 ± 26.2
265.1 ± 23
0.008
a = b < c
142.4 ± 16.3
144.0 ± 14.0
149.2 ± 11.9
0.057 45.6 ± 7.5
46.7 ± 7.0
50.4 ± 7.6
0.004
a < c
61.3 ± 9.6
60.7 ± 8.9
65.5 ± 8.2
0.025
b < c
Gender Male (9)
Female (162)
122.8 ± 7.9
125.5 ± 13.7
0.551 245.9 ± 24.1
254.0 ± 27.5
0.386 140.1 ± 11.2
144.7 ± 15.0
0.367 44.8 ± 5.5
47.2 ± 7.7
0.360 61.0 ± 11.1
62.1 ± 9.1
0.717
Marital status Single (104)
Married (67)
123.8 ± 12.0
127.9 ± 15.3
0.067 249.2 ± 28.3
260.5 ± 24.4
0.008 142.1 ± 15.6
148.1 ± 12.9
0.009 46.0 ± 7.4
48.7 ± 7.6
0.022 61.1 ± 9.4
63.7 ± 8.8
0.074
Education (degree) BSN or lower (151)
MSN or higher (20)
125.3 ± 13.5
126.1 ± 14.0
0.805 252.7 ± 26.6
260.7 ± 32.5
0.217 144.0 ± 14.9
148.2 ± 14.7
0.228 46.8 ± 7.1
48.9 ± 10.4
0.390 61.9 ± 9.1
63.5 ± 10.2
0.452
Religion Yes (89)
No (81)
126.3 ± 13.7
124.6 ± 13.3
0.430 255.1 ± 28.5
252.6 ± 25.6
0.537 145.5 ± 14.7
143.8 ± 14.5
0.437 47.1 ± 8.1
47.0 ± 7.0
0.890 62.5 ± 9.3
61.8 ± 9.1
0.637
Current clinical department Oncology/general/hospice Unit (81)
Intensive Care Unit (88)
127.5 ± 13.5
123.7 ± 13.4
0.067 260.7 ± 28.6
247.2 ± 24.8
0.001 148.0 ± 14.7
141.2 ± 14.4
0.003 48.3 ± 8.6
45.8 ± 6.3
0.034 64.3 ± 9.1
60.1 ± 8.9
0.003
Total clinical experience (yrs) 1–5 years (60)a
5–10 years (52)b
 > 10 years (59) c
123.4 ± 13.0
126.0 ± 13.8
126.9 ± 13.8
0.347 249.5 ± 28.2
248.9 ± 28.0
261.9 ± 24.2
0.015
a = b < c
142.5 ± 16.0
142.1 ± 15.5
148.6 ± 12.2
0.030
a = b = c
46.0 ± 7.3
45.5 ± 7.0
49.5 ± 7.8
0.007
a = b < c
61.0 ± 9.4
61.4 ± 9.9
63.8 ± 8.3
0.223
Current department experience (yrs) 0–5 years (96)
5–10 years (53)
 > 10 years (20)
124.6 ± 13.0
126.0 ± 14.1
126.0 ± 14.1
0.790 251.9 ± 28.1
253.9 ± 28.8
260.8 ± 17.1
0.412 143.6 ± 15.0
144.8 ± 15.9
148.2 ± 10.4
0.438 46.7 ± 7.7
46.8 ± 7.9
49.2 ± 5.7
0.382 61.6 ± 9.7
62.2 ± 9.3
63.3 ± 6.6
0.725
Experience in nursing ethics education None (27)a
1–10 h (105)b
 > 10 h (38)c
123.7 ± 11.2
124.1 ± 13.0
130.2 ± 15.5
0.041
b < c
237.6 ± 19.7
251.2 ± 27.6
270.5 ± 21.8
 < 0.001
a < b < c
137.0 ± 12.2
143.8 ± 15.6
151.2 ± 11.4
 < 0.001
a = b < c
43.0 ± 4.7
45.9 ± 7.2
52.6 ± 7.3
 < 0.001
a = b < c
57.5 ± 7.2
61.5 ± 9.7
66.8 ± 7.0
 < 0.001
a = b < c
Experience of ethical dilemma            
(within a week) Yes (48)
No (114)
130.7 ± 15.1
123.7 ± 12.3
0.002 256.4 ± 27.8
252.7 ± 27.3
0.436 144.2 ± 15.5
144.4 ± 14.9
0.933 48.3 ± 7.5
46.8 ± 7.6
0.231 63.9 ± 9.2
61.6 ± 8.9
0.131
Job satisfaction 1–3 (8)a
4–6 (75)b
7–10 (88)c
123.1 ± 5.9
123.1 ± 12.5
127.6 ± 14.5
0.088 240.1 ± 26.2
244.8 ± 27.9
262.4 ± 24.1
 < 0.001
b < c
138.8 ± 15.3
139.9 ± 16.6
148.9 ± 11.7
 < 0.001
b < c
41.6 ± 6.6
45.8 ± 6.8
48.6 ± 7.9
0.007
a < c
59.8 ± 9.1
59.1 ± 9.2
64.8 ± 8.5
 < 0.001
b < c
Ethical conflict score 1–3 (18)a
4–6 (90)b
7–10 (63)c
121.1 ± 11.3
121.1 ± 11.6
132.8 ± 13.6
 < 0.001
a = b < c
268.1 ± 20.4
245.1 ± 29.1
261.6 ± 22.1
 < 0.001
b < a = c
154.2 ± 11.4
140.6 ± 16.1
147.2 ± 11.8
 < 0.001
b < a = c
47.6 ± 7.1
45.4 ± 7.5
49.2 ± 7.3
0.008
b < c
66.2 ± 5.8
59.1 ± 9.5
65.2 ± 8.1
 < 0.001
b < a = c