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Table 4 Cognitive and consciousness-related capacities used as grounds for granting great apes special protections

From: Should biomedical research with great apes be restricted? A systematic review of reasons

Capacity for Mentions
Social interaction 14
Complex or sophisticated emotions 13
Rational thought 12
Intense suffering 11
Self-awareness 11
Post-traumatic disorders 9
Sophisticated, human-like capacities (unspecified) 8
Tool use 7
Gestural communication 7
Language acquisition 6
Culture development 5
Imitative learning 5
Symbolic representation 4
Abstract thought 4
Prospective thinking or planning 3
Working or episodic memory 3
Mind reading 3
Complex calculation 2
Social deprivation 2
Sense of humor 2
Sophisticated, human-like capacities in infancy 2
Personality development 1
Social cooperation 1