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Table 2 Perception of medical representative (MRs) on ethical promotion of pharmaceuticals

From: Perceptions of and barriers to ethical promotion of pharmaceuticals in Pakistan: perspectives of medical representatives and doctors

Questions Overall (%) Medical representatives (MRs) (%) OR (CI) p values
No Yes NCs, n = 205 MNCs, n = 125
Company provides information of high standards on product quality, safety, efficacy according to the standards framed by regulatory authorities 21 (6) 309 (94) 188 (91.7) 121 (96.8) 2.73 (0.9–8.3) 0.066
Company follows ethical guidelines for promotion and marketing of drug products 48 (15) 282 (85) 162 (79.0) 120 (96.0) 6.37 (2.5–16.5) 0.0005**
Aware of IFPMA guiding principles of ethical conduct and promotion 133 (40) 197 (60) 92 (44.9) 105 (84.0) 6.45 (3.7–11.2) 0.0005**
Aware of WHO ethical codes and promotion 119 (36) 211 (64) 105 (51.2) 106 (84.8) 5.31 (3.1–9.3) 0.0005**
Aware of Pakistan national code of ethics 132 (40) 198 (60) 94 (45.9) 104 (83.2) 5.84 (3.4–10.1) 0.0005**
Aware of PMRC code of ethics 165 (50) 165 (50) 73 (35.6) 92 (73.6) 5.04 (3.1–8.2) 0.0005**
Company provides accurate, balanced and scientifically valid data on products 28 (8) 302 (92) 181 (88.3) 121 (96.8) 4.01 (1.4–11.8) 0.007*
Company respect private and personal data of patients or medical doctor 32 (10) 298 (90) 180 (87.8) 118 (94.4) 2.34 (0.9–5.6) 0.049*
Company provides training to MRs on ethical promotion of their products 79 (24) 251 (76) 135 (65.9) 116 (92.8) 6.68 (3.2–13.9) 0.0005**
Company sponsors or organizes events for medical doctors outside Pakistan other than international conferences 179 (54) 151 (46) 127 (62.0) 24 (19.2) 0.15 (0.1–0.3) 0.0005**
Company sponsors social or entertainment activities of medical doctors in international conferences 178 (54) 152 (46) 130 (63.4) 22 (17.6) 0.123 (0.1–0.21) 0.0005**
Company is always willing to bear the costs of individuals accompanying the invited medical doctor on conferences 175 (53) 155 (47) 135 (65.9) 20 (16.0) 0.09 (0.1–0.2) 0.0005**
Company offers payments in cash or cash equivalents to medical doctors 233 (71) 97 (29) 88 (42.9) 9 (7.2) 0.103 (0.1–0.21) 0.0005**
Company always mark the samples with “Not for sale” tag 36 (11) 294 (89) 181 (88.3) 113 (90.4) 1.25 (0.6–2.6) 0.551
Company has the adequate system of controls and accountability for samples provided to medical doctors 51 (15) 279 (85) 167 (81.5) 112 (89.6) 1.96 (0.9–3.8) 0.047*
Company fulfils health care provider’s request for any facilitation or gift 151 (46) 179 (54) 146 (71.2) 33 (26.4) 0.145 (0.9–2.4) 0.0005**
  1. MNCs multinational companies, NCs national companies
  2. p values: p 0.05–0.002 = *, p ≤ 0.001 = **