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Table 1 General characteristics of the participants (A). Association of gender and professional status with prior research experience and prior training in research ethics (B)

From: Knowledge and attitudes of physicians toward research ethics and scientific misconduct in Lebanon

(A)   
  Mean ± SD  
Age 40.66 ± 13.751  
  Number (n) Percentage (%)
Gender (323)
 Female 124 38.4
 Male 199 61.6
Level of Education (322)
 M.D. 232 72.0
 Masters 39 12.1
 Ph.D. 35 10.9
 Board certified 16 5.0
Professional status (307)
 Professor 25 8.1
 Associate Professor 22 7.2
 Assistant Professor 19 6.2
 Senior Lecturer 26 8.5
 Clinician 157 51.1
 Resident doctors 53 17.3
 Research Officers 5 1.6
Medical Speciality (331)
 Internal Medicine 44 13.3
 Obstetrics/ Gynaecology 28 8.5
 Paediatric 53 16.0
 Surgery 47 14.2
 Others 159 48.0
  Mean ± SD  
Years of experience (292) 12.45 ± 12.90  
Prior research involvement (331)
 Yes 245 74
 No 86 26
Prior training in research ethics (313)
 Yes 168 53.7
 No 145 46.3
(B)  
  Prior research involvement
Yes (%) No (%)
Gender (p = 0. 896)
 Female 73.4 26.6
 Male 74.4 25.6
Level of Education (p = 0.007)
 M.D. 69.4 30.6
 Masters 79.5 20.5
 Ph.D. 91.4 8.6
 Board certified 93.8 6.3
Professional status (p = 0.000)
 Professor 92.0 8.0
 Associate Professor 95.5 4.5
 Assistant Professor 100.0 0.0
 Senior Lecturer 80.8 19.2
 Clinician 70.1 29.9
 Resident doctors 58.5 41.5
 Research Officers 100.0 0.0
Medical Speciality (p = 0.047)
 Internal Medicine 79.5 20.5
 Obstetrics/ Gynaecology 82.1 17.9
 Paediatric 56.6 43.4
 Surgery 78.7 21.3
 Others 75.5 24.5
Prior training in research ethics (p = 0.000)
 Yes 60 40
 No 34.6 65.4
  Prior training in research ethics
Yes (%) No (%)
Gender (p = 0. 55)
 Women 51.8 48.2
 Men 55.4 44.6
Level of Education (p = 0.07)
 M.D. 50.5 49.5
 Masters 55.6 44.4
 Ph.D. 74.3 25.7
 Board certified 53.3 46.7
Professional status (p = 0.003)
 Professor 84.0 16.0
 Associate Professor 47.6 52.4
 Assistant Professor 68.4 31.6
 Senior Lecturer 61.5 38.5
 Clinician 43.1 56.9
 Resident doctors 62.3 30.2
 Research Officers 60.0 40.0
Medical Speciality (p = 0.641)
 Internal Medicine 62.8 37.2
 Obstetrics/ Gynaecology 46.4 53.6
 Paediatric 49.0 51.0
 Surgery 55.3 44.7
 Others 53.4 46.6