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Table 2 Cox proportional hazards models for signing a DNR order

From: Are physicians on the same page about do-not-resuscitate? To examine individual physicians’ influence on do-not-resuscitate decision-making: a retrospective and observational study

 Crude Hazard Ratio (95% CI)P valueAdjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)P value
Gender
 Male0.68 (0.52–1.12)0.180.90 (0.56–1.42)0.64
 Female1.0 1.0
Age, year1.01 (1.00–1.02)0.101.01 (1.00–1.03)0.10
Religion
 Others0.56 (0.27–1.18)0.130.59 (0.27–1.28)0.18
 Buddhist/Daoist0.58 (0.27–1.23)0.160.60 (0.27–1.31)0.20
 Christian/Catholic1.0 1.0
Education, year
  > 120.62 (0.33–1.17)0.140.81 (0.37–1.79)0.60
 1–120.60 (0.33–1.07)0.080.81 (0.42–1.56)0.52
 01.0 1.0
Marital Status
 Married0.85 (0.57–1.25)0.400.88 (0.56–1.37)0.56
 Others1.0 1.0
Working Fulltime
 Yes0.77 (0.51–1.15)0.200.81 (0.49–1.34)0.41
 No1.0 1.0 
Residence
 Rural area1.77 (0.86–3.65)0.121.76 (0.83–3.76)0.14
 Urban area1.0 1.0 
Admission Diagnosis
 Non-operative a, cardiac failure/insufficiency1.54 (0.93–2.55)0.092.49 (1.37–4.53)< 0.01
 Non-operative, others1.70 (0.64–4.58)0.302.45 (0.84–7.16)0.10
 Post-operative b, major surgery0.91 (0.50–1.80)0.791.19 (0.56–2.53)0.66
 Post-operative others1.0 1.0
TISS1.02 (1.00–1.03)0.041.02 (1.00–1.04)< 0.01
Individual Physicians
 Physician 10.75 (0.10–5.77)0.780.71 (0.09–5.59)0.75
 Physician 21.02 (0.33–3.21)0.971.42 (0.42–4.77)0.57
 Physician 30.62 (0.08–4.77)0.650.47 (0.06–3.70)0.47
 Physician 42.64 (1.04–6.70)0.043.82 (1.40–10.45)< 0.01
 Physician 51.22 (0.48–3.08)0.682.09 (0.77–5.68)0.15
 Physician 60.36 (0.17–0.74)< 0.010.34 (0.16–0.71)< 0.01
 Physician 70.28 (0.08–0.99)0.050.26 (0.07–0.95)0.04
 Physician 80.60 (0.28–1.31)0.200.53 (0.24–1.19)0.12
 Physician 90.72 (0.37–1.43)0.350.66 (0.33–1.34)0.25
 Physician 100.65 (0.34–1.25)0.200.71 (0.35–1.46)0.36
 Physician 111.0 1.0
  1. Abbreviation List: DNR do-not-resuscitate, CI confidence interval, TISS Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, ICU intensive care unit
  2. a “Non-operative” implies that patients: (1) have undergone cardiothoracic surgical procedures before this admission, and were admitted due to clinical illnesses associated with prior surgical procedures; (2) were scheduled to receive a cardiothoracic surgical procedure; or (3) currently being supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  3. b “Post-operative” implies that patients have undergone cardiothoracic surgical procedures in this admission