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Table 5 List of domains and standards and consensus reached during rounds 6a and 6b

From: Standards of practice in empirical bioethics research: towards a consensus

Domain Round 6a standards % (N = 16) Round 6b standards % (N = 16)
Aims 1. Empirical bioethics research should address a normative issue that is oriented towards practice 94 (15/16)   
Aims 2. Empirical Bioethics research should integrate empirical methods with ethical arguments in order to address this normative issue 81 (13/16)   
Questions 3. Empirical bioethics researchers ought to be explicit about how the research question(s) asked address the normative issue identified in the aims 88 (14/16)   
Integration 4. The theoretical position on integration (i.e. the theoretical views on how the empirical and the normative are related) should be made clear and explicit 94 (15/16)   
Integration 5. The method of integration should be explained and justified, including details of what is integrated with what, how and by whom. 94 (15/16)   
Integration 6. There should be transparency, consistency and rigour in the execution and reporting of the integrating analysis 100 (16/16)   
Conduct of empirical work 7. Empirical bioethics research ought to attend to the rigorous implementation of empirical methods, and import accepted standards of conduct from appropriate research paradigms 94 (15/16)   
Conduct of empirical work 8. Empirical bioethics research should, if and where necessary, develop and amend empirical methods to facilitate collection of the data required to meet the aims of the research; but deviation from accepted disciplinary standards and practices ought to be acknowledged and justified 94 (15/16)   
Conduct of empirical work 9. Empirical bioethics research should reflect on and justify the appropriateness and fit of the chosen empirical methods in relation to (a) the normative aims and (b) the stated approach to integration 100 (16/16)   
Conduct of empirical work 10. Empirical bioethics research should consider and reflect on the implicit ethical and epistemological assumptions of the chosen empirical method 94 (15/16)   
Conduct of normative work 11. In empirical bioethics research there should be thorough delineation of the ethical issue(s), paying attention to, and locating them within, the relevant disciplinary literature 94 (15/16)   
Conduct of normative work 12. In empirical bioethics research there should be an explicit and robust ethical argument, where argument is understood as an explicit attempt to convince X to adopt position Y with the use of reasons 75 (12/16) In empirical bioethics research there should be explicit and robust normative analysis. ‘Normative analysis’ includes attempts to justify position X to person Y with the use of ethical reasoning, providing suggestion for improvement to position X based on ethical reasoning, or attempts to break down and make explicit a complex normative issue in order to gain a better understanding of it 81 (13/16)
Training and expertise 13. The empirical bioethics researcher, or the research team as a whole, should possess competence in ethical inquiry, empirical inquiry and methods of integration 100 (16/16)   
Training and expertise 14. The empirical bioethics researcher(s) should have at least a basic knowledge of bioethics, and an understanding of whatever aspects of other disciplines or fields that are engaged with 88 (14/16)   
Training and expertise 15. Provision should be made for ensuring that any team members can acquire or enhance competence in empirical bioethics research 94 (15/16)