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Table 2 Models of informed consent

From: Ethical issues in pragmatic randomized controlled trials: a review of the recent literature identifies gaps in ethical argumentation

Consent model Characteristics Authors
Standard informed consent • Written disclosure of all information
• Consent obtained in writing
Anderson & Schonfeld 2014
Targeted consent model • Verbally disclose information
• Obtain written consent
Wendler 2015
Integrated consent model • Verbally disclose information
• No written consent required
• Physician documents consent in electronic health record
Kim & Miller 2014
Streamlined consent • No consent is sought Faden, Kass, Whicher, Stewart, & Tunis 2013