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Table 4 Frequency with which the 140 students witnessed dilemmas related to issues of Decision-making for treatment, Justice, Communication, Professionalism and Student-Specific Concerns

From: Must we remain blind to undergraduate medical ethics education in Africa? A cross-sectional study of Nigerian medical students

Dilemma Often(%) Sometimes (%) Never(%)
Poor Doctor/Patient communication
Substandard care being provided
Doctor/Patient care conflicts
Non-adherence to treatment
Decisional capacity concerns
Religious beliefs
Doctors going beyond professional obligations
Disrespect to colleagues, students
Doctors encouraging queue-jumping in clinic
Doctors disrespect to patients
Student keeping quiet over teachers conduct
Doctors treating despite poor prognosis
Students not allowed to examine patients
Student learning on patients unsupervised
Breaking bad news
Gratuitous story-telling about patients
Shortage of drugs/consumables
Student learning on patients without consent
Patients as research subjects
Informed consent issues
Student doing intimate physical examinations
Uncertainty over role in health team
Dealing with difficult patients
Medical/surgical error
Questionable use of resources
Discriminatory care of patients
Abuse /neglect of vulnerable persons
Student Compromising one’s ethical standards
Privacy/confidentiality issues
Medical error disclosure
Blood transfusion concerns
Truth-telling vs deception
Surrogate decision making
Paternity test decisions
Do not resuscitate orders
64(45.7)
64(45.7)
48(43.3)
59(42.1)
55(39.3)
55(39.3)
54(38.6)
54(38.6)
54(38.6)
53(37.9)
51(36.4)
51(36.4)
50(35.7)
50(35.7)
42(30)
40(28.6)
40(28.6)
39(27.9)
37(26.4)
36(25.7)
36(25.7)
36(25.7)
35(25)
34(24.3)
29(20.7)
26(18.6)
26(18.6)
24(17.1)
23(16.4)
21(15)
19(13.6)
19(13.6)
14(10)
4(2.9)
3(2.1)
63(45)
68(48.6)
85(60.7)
62(44.3)
79(56.4)
67(47.9)
74(52.9)
70(50)
72(51.4)
66(47.1)
75(53.6)
73(52.1)
66(47.1)
72(51.4)
79(56.4)
66(47.1)
69(49.3)
78(55.7)
70(50)
82(58.6)
69(49.3)
81(57.9)
69(49.3)
80(57.1)
43(30.7)
69(49.3)
73(52.1)
53(37.9)
72(51.4)
57(40.7)
104(74.3)
52(37.1)
55(39.3)
31(22.1)
19(13.6)
13(9.3)
8(5.7)
7(5)
19(13.6)
6(4.3)
18(12.9)
12(8.6)
16(11.4)
14(10)
21(15)
14(10)
16(11.4)
24(17.1)
18(12.9)
19(13.6)
34(24.3)
31(22.1)
23(16.4)
33(23.6)
22(15.7)
35(25)
23(16.4)
36(25.7)
26(18.6)
68(48.6)
45(29.3)
41(29.3)
63(45)
45(32.1)
62(44.3)
17(12.1)
69(49.3)
71(50.7)
105(75)
118(84.3)
  1. Key: often-at least weekly
  2. sometimes—monthly or less frequently/seldom
  3. never-no incident experienced