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Table 1 Minimal, aspirational and contested criteria for good personal health checks as formulated by interviewed providers

From: What is a good health check? An interview study of health check providers’ views and practices

Minimal criteria Treatability of (risk factors for) disease: Health check results must provide clear opportunities for health improvement
Clinical validity: Health check results must be valid and reliable indicators for (risk factors for) disease
Informed consent: Participation must be voluntary and based on reliable information
Health checks should provide more benefits than harms
In case of population screenings: cost-effectiveness
Aspirational criteria Follow-up care should be provided, including objective explanation of test-results and facilitation in the realization of health benefits
Providers should be skilled and experienced professionals that put the benefit of (potential) users first
Providers should take time and attention
Contested criteria People should be free to test on any (risk factor for) disease, provided they are well-informed
Assessment before the test: Health checks should only be performed in people at high risk for disease
Follow up care of privately funded tests should not drain on collective resources