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Table 1 Gunning’s Fog Index (FOG) and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grade levels of studies and participants’ educational levels

From: Readability of patient information and consent documents in rheumatological studies

Study no Study design No of participants (n) Mean age and sex Participants years of schooling or education level FOG grade 1 FOG grade 2 SMOG grade Participants with lower educational level than required to understand the PICD % (n)
The Netherlands  
1 [47] Evaluation of self-management programs 19 21 years (n = 9) and 22 years (n = 10), female 84 % Low 1a
Middle 13b
High 5c
11.0 9.4 13 5 % (1)
2 [48] Cross-sectional study 333 47 years, female 100 % Low 15d
Middle 256e
High 62f
10.1 9.0 13 5 % (15)
3 [49] Randomised controlled study 199 62 years, female 65 % Low 28d
Middle 79e
High 91f
Missing 1
11.7 15.5 13 54 % (107)
4 [50] Randomised controlled study 82 48 years, female 92 % Low/intermediate 50
High 32
15.6 11.1 13 61 % (50)
5 [51] Randomised controlled study 203 In five groups: 39 to 43 years, female 92–100 % Low 108
Middle 68
High 27
12.3 17.6 14 87 % (176)
6 [52] Qualitative focus group study 20 57 years, female 75 % Low 3d
Middle 12e
High 5f
13.8 11.8 12 75 % (15)
7 [53] Randomised controlled study 158 47 years, female 94 % Primary (mean 7 years) 8
Secondary (mean 12 years) 128
Tertiary (mean 17 years) 22
15.6 13.9 15 86 % (136)
Denmark  
1 [54] Randomised crossover study 20 67 years, female 100 % Elementary school 5
High school 0
<4 years at University level 9
4–6 years at University level 2
>6 years at University level 4
16.5 12.9 14 70 % (14)
2 [55] A prospective study 315 55 years, female 77 % None 67
Vocational 102
Higher 146
18.7 16.8 16 54 % (169)
3 [56] A qualitative interview study 16 50 years, female 75 % No formal education 2
Minimal education 7
Secondary education 4
University 3
13.0 11.0 13 69 % (9)
4 [57] A qualitative interview study 13 44 years, male 100 % Minimal education 1
Secondary education 9
University 3
11.5 17.0 15 77 % (10)
5 [58] Randomised controlled study 287 63 years, female 87 % <11 years 232
≥11 years 55
13.6 17.9 15 81 % (232)
6 [59] Qualitative focus group study 32 58 years, female 59 % Unskilled 3 Vocational 18 Undergraduate 6 Graduate 5 15.2 13.8 14 84 % (27)
7 [28] A qualitative interview study 31 38–89 years, female 85 % <10 years 4 10–12 years 7 > 12 years 20 17.8 14.4 17 36 % (11)
Norway  
1 [60] Randomised controlled study 57 Group 1: 68 and Group 2: 69 years, female 56 % ≤12 years 24 > 12 years 33 16.9 11.4 13 42 % (24)
2 [61] Randomised controlled study 141 58 years, female 69 % ≤12 years 88 > 12 years 53 19.0 15.1 15 63 % (88)
3 [62] Randomised controlled study 95 49 years, female 35 % ≤12 years 58 > 12 years 37 16.6 13.8 15 61 % (58)
4 [63] Comparing treatment 153 Group 1: 57 years, female 89 %. Group 2: 51 years, female 53 % ≤12 years 87 > 12 years 65 15.2 18.7 14 57 % (87)
5 [64] Randomised controlled study 68 50 years, female 68 % Elementary school 13 High school 36 College/university 19 13.3 13.6 14 72 % (49)
6 [65] Randomised controlled study 135 44 years, all female ≤10 years 21 11–13 years 49 > 13 years 53 Unknown 12 14.9 9.8 14 52 % (70)
7 [66] Follow up study 134 55 years, female 87 % 9 years 36 ≤ 12 years 43 > 12 years 55 12.8 13.3 14 59 % (79)
8 [27] A longitudinal study 281 46 years, female 58 % ≤9 years 38 10–12 years 118 > 12 years 125 12.8 13.7 15 56 % (156)
9 [29] Randomised controlled study 107 M-group 48 years, N-group 51ys, female 43 % Mean years of education 13 years (M-group) 12 years (N-group) 15.0 18.7 15 Cannot be calculated
10 [67] Randomised controlled study 73 54 years, female 79 % ≤12 years 36 > 12 years 37 12.9 13.6 14 49 % (36)
Participants in 23 studies 2865g       57 % (1619g)
  1. Explanation of years of schooling or education level (a–f)
  2. aVocational training
  3. bAdvanced vocational training
  4. cCollege/University training
  5. dPrimary school/lower vocational secondary education
  6. eIntermediate general secondary education/vocational education
  7. fHigher general secondary education, higher vocational education, preuniversity or university level
  8. gWithout the Norwegian study number 9 which cannot be calculated