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Table 5 Comparison of means across demographic subgroups (MANOVA; SD in parenthesis)

From: Attitudes towards assisted dying are influenced by question wording and order: a survey experiment

Variables Q1 (PAS) Q2 (E) Q3 (AD for chronic disease)
Age groups 16–24 4.09 (1.12) 3.83 (1.28) 3.51 (1.27)
25–34 4.01 (1.21) 3.70 (1.35) 3.38 (1.40)
35–44 4.11 (1.21) 3.89 (1.30) 3.38 (1.42)
45–54 3.95 (1.37) 3.70 (1.46) 3.22 (1.51)
55+ 3.76a (1.43) 3.55b (1.32) 3.04a (1.53)
Gender Male 3.98 (1.29) 3.75 (1.37) 3.33 (1.44)
Female 3.91 (1.34) 3.65c (1.44) 3.17d (1.48)
Educational levels Primary school 4.08 (1.16) 3.76 (1.30) 3.36 (1.38)
Upper secondary school 4.18 (1.14) 3.98 1.23) 3.45 (1.42)
≤3 years higher ed. 3.97 (1.29) 3.75 (1.39) 3.32 (1.44)
>3 years higher ed. 3.76e (1.42) 3.49f (1.51) 3.06f (1.50)
Religious beliefs No religion 4.23 (1.08) 3.99 (1.23) 3.60 (1.34)
Christian 3.62g (1.48) 3.38g (1.53) 2.85g (1.52)
Muslim 3.06g (1.34) 3.00g (1.55) 2.69g (1.45)
Other religions 4.20 (1.20) 3.97 (1.37) 3.47 (1.45)
  1. Note: Numbers are mean scores on a five-point Likert scale: 1 = completely disagree; 5 = completely agree (SDs in parenthesis). Three tests were used for the MANOVAs: Wilk’s Lambda, Pillai’s Trace, and Hotelling’s Trace. MANOVA tests for age groups, gender, education level, and religious group were all significant with F-values in the range of 6.78–15.46 and p-values < .000. F-tests were used for follow-up testing of group differences for each question. All tests were two-tailed
  2. amean in the oldest group significantly lower than the mean in all other groups, except age group 45–54 (p < 0.001)
  3. bmean in the oldest group significantly lower than the mean in the two youngest age groups (16–24 and 25–34; p < 0.001)
  4. cfemales score significantly lower than males (p < 0.05)
  5. dfemales score significantly lower than males (p < 0.01)
  6. emean in this group significantly lower than the mean in all other groups (p < 0.001)
  7. fmean in this group significantly lower than the mean in all other groups, except the group with only primary school education (p < 0.001)
  8. gmean for Christians and Muslim are significantly lower than for No religion and Other religions (p < 0.001). Means for Christians and Muslims are not significantly different