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BMC Medical Ethics

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Concept of defensive medicine and litigation among Sudanese doctors working in obstetrics and gynecology

  • AbdelAziem A. Ali1Email author,
  • Moawia E. Hummeida2,
  • Yasir A. M. Elhassan3,
  • Wisal O. M.Nabag4,
  • Mohammed Ahmed A. Ahmed5 and
  • Gamal K. Adam5
BMC Medical EthicsBMC series – open, inclusive and trusted201617:12

Received: 16 August 2015

Accepted: 2 February 2016

Published: 9 February 2016

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Open Peer Review reports

Pre-publication versions of this article are available by contacting

Original Submission
16 Aug 2015 Submitted Original manuscript
28 Sep 2015 Reviewed Reviewer Report - Michael Rowe
15 Dec 2015 Reviewed Reviewer Report - Giuseppe Vertrugno
22 Dec 2015 Author responded Author comments - AbdelAziem Ali
Resubmission - Version 2
22 Dec 2015 Submitted Manuscript version 2
28 Jan 2016 Author responded Author comments - AbdelAziem Ali
Resubmission - Version 3
28 Jan 2016 Submitted Manuscript version 3
2 Feb 2016 Editorially accepted
9 Feb 2016 Article published 10.1186/s12910-016-0095-3

How does Open Peer Review work?

Open peer review is a system where authors know who the reviewers are, and the reviewers know who the authors are. If the manuscript is accepted, the named reviewer reports are published alongside the article. Pre-publication versions of the article are available by contacting

You can find further information about the peer review system here.

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kassala University, Kassala, Sudan
School of Medicine, Alneelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
Faculty of Medicine, Kordofan University, ElObeid, Sudan
Faculty of Medicine, Alzaiem Alazhari University, Al-ShaBiyya, Sudan
Faculty of Medicine, Gadarif University, AlGadarif, Sudan