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Table 1 Characteristics of studies and publication status

From: Can UK NHS research ethics committees effectively monitor publication and outcome reporting bias?

  Publication status of all studies (n = 116) Reporting outcomes of published studies (n = 28)
  Published 37 (32 %) Unpublished 79 (68 %) Total 116 Studies with discrepancies 16 (57 %) Studies consistent with IRAS form 12 (43 %) Total 28
Study type       
Clinical trial 10 (27 %) 27 (73 %) 37 (32 %) 3 (75 %) 1 (25 %) 4 (14 %)
Clinical Investigation 2 (25 %) 6 (75 %) 8 (7 %) 1 (50 %) 1 (50 %) 2 (7 %)
Questionnaire/mixed methodology 13 (57 %) 10 (43 %) 23 (20 %) 8 (62 %) 5 (38 %) 13 (46 %)
Qualitative study 3 (33 %) 6 (67 %) 9 (8 %) 2 (67 %) 1 (33 %) 3 (11 %)
Tissue or data 4 (27 %) 11 (73 %) 15 (13 %) 1 (25 %) 3 (75 %) 4 (14 %)
Other 1 (13 %) 7 (87 %) 8 (7 %) 1 (100 %) 0 (0 %) 1 (4 %)
Unknown study type 4 (25 %) 12 (75 %) 16 (14 %) 0 (0 %) 1 (100 %) 1 (4 %)
Type of sponsor       
NHS or HPSS 16 (35 %) 30 (65 %) 46 (40 %) 7 (50 %) 7 (50 %) 14 (50 %)
Academic 13 (38 %) 21 (62 %) 34 (29 %) 7 (58 %) 5 (42 %) 12 (43 %)
Industry 3 (12 %) 21 (88 %) 24 (21 %) 2 (100 %) 0 (0 %) 2 (7 %)
Unknown sponsor 5 (42 %) 7 (58 %) 12 (10 %) N/A N/A  
Number of centres       
Single centre 11 (70 %) 26 (30 %) 37 (32 %) 7 (63 %) 4 (36 %) 11 (39 %)
Multi-centre 21 (33 %) 42 (67 %) 63 (54 %) 9 (53 %) 8 (47 %) 17 (61 %)
Unknown 5 (31 %) 11 (69 %) 16 (14 %) N/A N/A  
Sample size       
<100 14 (29 %) 34 (71 %) 48 (41 %) 7 (50 %) 7 (50 %) 14 (50 %)
≥100 14 (30 %) 33 (70 %) 47 (41 %) 9 (63 %) 5 (36 %) 14 (50 %)
Unknown sample size 9 (43 %) 12 (57 %) 21 (18 %) N/A N/A  
Number of papers       
1 N/A N/A   11 (58 %) 8 (42 %) 19 (68 %)
>1 N/A N/A   5 (56 %) 4 (44 %) 9 (32 %)
  1. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding. Stratification taken from the REC application form with “unknown” referring to either a missing form or data missing from the application