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Table 1 Summary of regulation*

From: Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world

Country National legislation and effect, or approach in the absence of national legislation
Australia Prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Austria Act No.275 of 1st July 1992: Implicitly prohibits both RC and NRC
Belgium Law of 11th May 2003: Prohibits RC but permits NRC
Canada Assisted Human Reproduction Act 2004: Prohibits both RC and NRC
China None Ministerial regulations prohibit RC and allow NRC
Denmark Law No.460 of 1997: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Finland Medical Research Act No.488 of 1999: Prohibits RC, but NRC might not be included within this prohibition
France Law of July 2004: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Germany Embryo Protection Act 1990: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Greece Law 3089 of 23rd December 2002: Prohibits RC, but does not cover NRC
Iceland Law No. 55 of 29th of May 1996: Prohibits both RC and NRC
India None Guidelines reject RC but might allow NRC
Ireland None Constitutional provision might prohibit both NRC and RC
Israel Prohibition of Genetic Intervention (Human Cloning and Genetic Manipulation of Reproductive Cells) Law 1999: Imposes a moratorium on RC, silent on NRC
Italy Law of 2003: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Korea Bioethics Law 2003: Prohibits RC, silent on NRC
Luxembourg None
Mexico General Health Law of 7 May 1997: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Netherlands Embryo Act 2002: Prohibits RC and imposes a moratorium on NRC
New Zealand Medicines (Restricted Biotechnical Procedures) Amendment Act 2002: Prohibits RC, silent on NRC
Norway Law No. 100 of 5 December 2003: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Peru General Law No. 26842 of 9 July 1997: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Portugal None Ratified Convention (discussed below)
Russia Law on the Temporary Prohibition of Human Cloning 2002: Imposes a Moratorium on RC
Spain Law 35 of November 1988: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Sweden Law No. 115 of 14th March 1991: Implicitly prohibits both RC and NRC (with possible gaps)
Switzerland Federal Law of 18 December 1998: Prohibits both RC and NRC
Thailand None
UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990: Permits NRC under licence Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001: Prohibits RC
United States None Some states have legislation prohibiting RC or both RC and NRC
  1. * The International Digest of Health Legislation http://www3.who.int provides translations of the legislation of Austria (1993, vol 44); Denmark (1997, vol 48); Israel (2000, vol 51), Norway (2003, vol 54), Peru (1998, vol 49), and Switzerland (1999, vol 50, and 2003, vol 54). The Bulletin of Medical Ethics provides translations of the legislation of Finland (Feb 2000, p7) and Germany (Dec 1990, p9). In addition, we have used English translations of the legislation of Greece http://www.coe.int, the Netherlands http://www.minvws.nl, and Sweden (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Swedish Act concerning Use of Gene Technology on Human Beings and Experiments with Fertilised Ova, 1991).