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Table 2 Comparison of characteristics between patients assigned to HCEC group and patients assigned to UC group

From: To evaluate the effectiveness of health care ethics consultation based on the goals of health care ethics consultation: a prospective cohort study with randomization

  HCEC Group N = 33 UC Group N = 29 p value
Patient Characteristics    
Age on admission, year 51 ± 20.82 46 ± 23.29 0.53
Gender 0.66
 Female 12 (36.36%) 9 (31.03%)  
 Male 21 (63.64%) 20 (68.97%)  
Marital status    
 Married 18 (54.55%) 13 (44.83%) 0.45
 Unmarried 15 (45.45%) 16 (55.17%)  
Educational level    0.52
 University of Higher 14 (42.42%) 10 (34.48%)  
 Middle school or Lower 19 (57.58%) 19 (65.52%)  
Religion    0.81
 Buddhism/Daoism 17 (51.52%) 15 (51.72%)  
 Christian/Catholics 2 (6.06%) 3 (10.34%)  
 Others 14 (42.42%) 11 (37.93%)  
Elixhauser comorbidity measures 2 ± 1.80 2 ± 1.54 0.47
HCEC requested 0.72
 Nurse 19 (57.58%) 18 (62.07%)  
 Attending Physician 14 (42.42%) 11 (37.93%)  
Outcome Data  
Discharge status    0.56
 Dead 26 (78.79%) 21 (72.41%)  
 Survived 7 (21.21%) 8 (27.59%)  
Total ICU stay, day 17 ± 17.26 30 ± 37.50 0.05
Total hospital stay, day 25 ± 35.80 70 ± 42.05 < 0.01
Post-conflict ICU stay, day a 6 ± 13.87 20 ± 23.86 < 0.01
Post-conflict hospital stay, day b 7 ± 18.52 21 ± 25.02 < 0.01
The average of ethical issues 2 ± 0.63 2 ± 0.58 0.42
Consensus reached   < 0.01
 No 5 (15.15%) 22 (75.86%)  
 Yes 28 (84.85%) 7 (24.14%)  
  1. Abbreviation list: HCEC, health care ethics consultation; UC, usual care; ICU, intensive care unit.
  2. Continuous variables of the two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney test, and the test results were shown as median ± standard deviation. Categorical variables of the two groups were compared using the Chi-squared test, and the test results were shown as number (percentage).
  3. a “Post-conflict ICU stay, day” means the length of ICU stay by days after the medical uncertainty or conflict regarding value-laden issues happened.
  4. b “Post-conflict hospital stay, day” means the length of hospital stay by days after the medical uncertainty or conflict regarding value-laden issues happened.