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Table 2 Factors for judging a certain treatment futile

From: Can physicians’ judgments of futility be accepted by patients?: A comparative survey of Japanese physicians and laypeople

Factor Physicians Laypeople
n = 1161 (%) n = 3330 (%)
1 Request for the treatment from the patient 43.4 69.4
2 Request for the treatment from the patient’s family 6.7 26.4
3 Lack of patient’s wish for the treatment 34.7 28.0
4 Lack of patient’s family’s wish for the treatment 6.0 4.3
5 Cognitive function of the patient 6.2 4.8
6 Patient age 6.0 8.0
7 Patient being close to death 19.7 14.3
8 Therapeutic effect for prolongation of the patient’s life 15.0 17.7
9 Therapeutic effect for QOL (quality of life) of the patient 40.6 20.0
10 Religion of the patient 3.5 1.3
11 Value judgment of the patient about treatment course 7.2 7.8
12 Psychological impact of the treatment on the patient 4.0 14.0
13 Psychological impact of the treatment on the patient’s family 0.7 3.4
14 Maintenance of the patient-healthcare worker relationship 2.0 1.5
15 Likelihood of recovery or cure due to the treatment 41.6 35.3
16 Physical harm (side effect or complication) caused by the treatment 16.2 10.1
17 Theoretical medical appropriateness of providing the treatment 28.4 14.2
18 Value judgment of the healthcare worker about treatment course 2.2 3.1
19 Psychological impact on the healthcare workers 1.0 1.7
20 Cost-benefit balance of the treatment 4.2 8.5
  1. Each respondent chose three items that he/she considered especially important for judging futility.