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Table 1 Attitudes to hypothetical cases (number of respondents who answered “YES”)

From: Can physicians’ judgments of futility be accepted by patients?: A comparative survey of Japanese physicians and laypeople

Vignette 1 : A PATIENT WITH ADVANCED LUNG CANCER REQUESTS ANOTHER COURSE OF CHEMOTHERAPY WITH A STRONG-WILLED, “I NEVER GIVE UP TO THE END.” THE PATIENT RECEIVED PREVIOUS COURSES OF CHEMOTHERAPY REPEATEDLY AND DETERIORATED SEVERELY. HIS DOCTORS ESTIMATED THAT THERE WERE NO LONGER ANY AGENTS ANTICIPATED EFFECTIVE FOR HIS CONDITION, AND HIS LIFE EXPECTANCY MAY BE SEVERAL WEEKS.
  Physicians (%) Laypeople (%)
Q: Should another course of chemotherapy be administered?* 131 (33.2) 742 (65.4)
Q: Are his doctors’ professional opinions important for judging whether to administer it?* 306 (77.5) 506 (44.6)
Vignette 2 : A 21-YEAR-OLD PATIENT DIAGNOSED AS BRAIN DEAD DEVELOPS RENAL FAILURE AND SEVERE SYSTEMATIC EDEMA. PARENTS OF THE PATIENT UNDERSTAND THE CONDITION OF THEIR SON BUT REQUEST BLOOD PURIFICATION THERAPY SAYING, "WE DO NOT WANT TO LOSE OUR SON YET. WE HOPE TO PROVIDE UNLIMITED TREATMENT." THE PATIENT HAS NO ADVANCE DIRECTIVES REGARDING HIS MEDICAL TREATMENT.
  Physicians (%) Laypeople (%)
Q: Should blood purification therapy be provided?* 97 (24.4) 490 (43.2)
Q: Is the patient’s brain death important for judging whether to provide the therapy?* 323 (81.4) 611 (53.9)
Vignette 3 : A VERY OLD WOMEN WHO IS INCOMPETENT DUE TO ADVANCED DEMENTIA AND BEDRIDDEN FOR A DAY IS DIAGNOSED WITH GASTRIC CANCER. THE MEDICALLY OPTIMAL TREATMENT FOR THE CANCER STAGE IS GASTRIC RESECTION, WHICH IS EXPECTED TO PROLONG HER LIFE FOR ONE YEAR. SHE HAS NO ADVANCE DIRECTIVES ABOUT MEDICAL TREATMENTS.
  Physicians (%) Laypeople (%)
Q: Should gastric surgery be performed?* 59 (14.8) 395 (34.8)
Q: Is her advanced dementia important for judging whether to perform gastric resection?* 309 (77.6) 474 (41.8)
  1. * P <0.05.
  2. Five answer options were dichotomized: “I definitely think so” and “I think so” into “YES,” and “I am unsure,” “I somewhat do not think so” and ”I do not think so”into “NO.”.