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Table 5 Medical Error (ME) to be Disclosed According to Preference and Perception of Current Practice per Demographic Characteristics

From: Which medical error to disclose to patients and by whom? Public preference and perceptions of norm and current practice

  Statement* Overall P valuea Disclose near miss ME vs. other choicesb Don't disclose ME
vs. other choicesb
  Don't disclose ME Disclose major harm ME Disclose moderate harm ME Disclose
minor harm ME
Disclose
near miss
ME
  P OR
(95% CI)
P OR
(95 %CI)
Personal Preference           
Males [425] 32 (8) 74 (17) 87 (21) 121(29) 111(26) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.45 < 0.001 4.23
Females** [477] 9 (2) 119 (25) 56 (12) 84 (18) 209 (44)    (0.34-0.60)   (2.00-8.98)
Saudis [810] 38 (5) 182 (23) 129 (16) 176 (22) 285 (35) 0.06 0.59 0.88 0.54 1.46
Non-Saudi Arabs** [92] 3 (3) 11 (12) 14 (15) 29 (32) 35 (38)    (0.57-1.4)   (0.44-4.83)
Patients [333] 8 (2) 80 (24) 57 (17) 84 (25) 104 (31) 0.25 0.04 0.74 0.02 0.40
Healthy** [569] 33 (6) 113 (20) 86 (15) 121 (21) 216 (38)    (0.56-0.99)   (0.18-0.88)
≥College, 551 21 (4) 114 (21) 101 (18) 128 (23) 187 (34) 0.02 0.003 0.40 0.58 1.78
         (0.21-0.73)   (0.23-13.51)
School [304] 19 (6) 70 (23) 42 (14) 67 (22) 106 (35)   0.006 0.41 0.29 3.00
         (0.22-0.77)   (0.39-22.73)
Illiterate** [46] 1 (2) 9 (20) 0 (0) 10 (22) 26 (57)      
Perception of Current Practice        
Males [420] 37 (9) 104 (25) 119 (28) 87 (21) 73 (17) < 0.001 0.93 1.02 < 0.001 0.38
Females** [426] 87 (20) 146 (34) 66 (16) 54 (13) 73 (17)    (0.71-1.45)   (0.25-0.57)
Saudis [758] 116 (15) 230 (30) 161 (21) 125 (17) 126 (17) 0.02 0.15 0.68 0.12 1.81
Non-Saudi Arabs** [88] 8 (9) 20 (23) 24 (27) 16 (18) 20 (23)    (0.40-1.16)   (0.85-3.84)
Patients [304] 41 (14) 88 (29) 60 (20) 59 (19) 56 (18) 0.20 0.50 1.13 0.47 0.86
Healthy** [542] 83 (15) 162 (30) 125 (23) 82 (15) 90 (17)    (0.79-1.64)   (0.58-1.29)
≥College [524] 66(13) 167 (32) 136 (26) 73 (14) 82 (16) 0.004 0.83 1.11 0.01 0.31
         (0.42-2.95)   (0.17-0.78)
School [286] 48 (17) 66 (23) 49 (17) 64 (22) 59 (21)   0.38 1.56 0.09 0.50
         (0.58-4.20)   (0.23-1.12)
Illiterate** [35] 10 (29) 16 (46) 0 (0) 4 (11) 5 (14)      
  1. *"Don't disclose", and disclose when there is a "major harm", "moderate harm", "minor harm", or "near miss" correspond, respectively, to statements 1 to 5 in Table 1(a). Data indicate the number (%) of respondents who chose the corresponding statement. Numbers between [·] represent the number of responses from participants with the indicated characteristic. aMann-Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis test (for educational status). bMantel-Haenszel common odds ratio estimate.
  2. ** Reference group in the Mantel-Haenszel estimate. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
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